Success stories

Waves Enterprise online voting technologies are designed for a broad range of organizations and applications, from polls in small companies to nationwide voting.

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Waves Enterprise technologies
used in Single voting day 2020
The Waves Enterprise team used its e-voting service technologies in cooperation with Rostelecom, Russia’s telecommunications provider, to create a remote e-voting system which was used in Russia during the September 2020 nationwide elections.
Requirements for the system
The main requirements for a remote e-voting system are roughly identical to those imposed on the systems of conventional in-person voting, and are specified in Russia’s Federal Law no. 67-FZ of 12 June 2002 (amended 31 July 2020) “On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of the citizens of Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum”.
1
Voting in elections and referenda shall be by secret balloting, which shall exclude any control over expression of a citizen’s will.
(Article 7).
2
The right to vote shall be granted only to those who have active suffrage in this election.
3
One voter shall be given one vote only. Double voting shall not be allowed.
4
The voting process shall be open and public for electors and observers.
5
The integrity of each cast vote shall be ensured.
6
There shall be no possibility to count the interim results of a voting before it is completed.
Thus, there are three main actors in the system: the voter, the election committee and the observer, with an established order of interactions between them. A fourth actor can also be identified – these are the authorities in charge of registration of Russian citizens at the place of residence (primarily the law enforcement and other executive bodies), since active suffrage is connected to citizenship and the citizens’ registration is at their places of residence. All these actors interact with each other.

The remote e-voting system was developed by PAO Rostelecom and Waves Enterprise by order of the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation. Waves Enterprise supplied the blockchain platform and the cryptographic protocol with which to provide the required set of functions, properties and characteristics of the remote e-voting system.

“This system is based on the blockchain technology, [that is] Russian cryptography. We have cooperated with the relevant agencies and developed
a complete threat model. We are confident that we meet all relevant requirements in terms of information security and user anonymity”
Maksut Shadayev
The Russian Minister of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media.
The capabilities provided by Waves Enterprise blockchain technologies and modern cryptography have made it possible to organize a reliable, secure and transparent process with which to accept, store and count electors’ votes, as well as to make it impossible to falsify the final results.

The voters’ ballot access was checked and their anonymity during vote counting was protected with the help of a blind signature. With this algorithm, the voter’s personal data, (checked when access to voting is requested), is untied from her unique ID (public key) which will further represent the voter in the voting system.


The public key is masked (made blind) according to a dedicated cryptography algorithm. As a result, the validator signs a masked public key without knowing the source key. However, the algorithm is peculiar in that when the user (the voter) receives a signature on the masked key, they can make the inverse transformation and obtain a signature that would be also valid for the initial, unmasked key.
Thus, the system will be able to check that the voter has the right to vote, but no-one will know their unique ID used to record the transactions with their vote.

How the voting went
The e-voting in the Rostelecom system was conducted in the Kursk and Yaroslavl regions (respectively in the Seymsky single member electoral district no.110 and the Yaroslavl single member electoral district no.194) on September 11–13, 2020.

Overall, more than 36 thousand people registered for e-voting. The turnout was greater than 90%.

Firstly, remote voting technologies began to spread to regions. It is very interesting and highly important for us to see how both the election commissions and the voters react to these technologies. So far, the picture looks fairly positive. Although the voters do not fully understand how remote voting technologies work and why they can trust them, the turnouts speak for themselves.

Secondly, the digital voting systems that have been in use in Russia so far were developed by Moscow’s Department of Information Technologies. Now, however, the voting districts in Kursk and Yaroslavl used a system that was developed by Rostelecom and Waves Enterprise by order of Russia’s Central Election Commission. Thus, the development effort was taken to the federal level, which we said was needed back in June.

As of today, the new system has put up a good performance: there has been no significant malfunction or bad feedback from the voters. The shares of non-voter ballots are three times lower than those at the Constitution amendment voting.

There are also no objections to its architecture and the interactions with the system’s developers: as early as in August, our group of experts received a detailed technical description of the new system.
It is especially important to note the amount of statistics that the remote voting systems provide – it includes everything up to second-by-second information about when ballots were distributed and votes were accepted. When the voting is over, we will do a detailed analysis of these statistics, and will make sure to make the results available to the general public”
Oleg Artamonov
The head of scientific and technical expertise at Direct Democracy Party
The result
Around 30,000 voters voted remotely at the September 2020 elections. No appreciable malfunctions or systems mistakes were identified during the voting. The Waves enterprise team in cooperation with PAO Rostelecom continue to develop the e-voting system, so it can be used in the future to conduct larger national elections
30,000 voters

Around 30,000 voters voted remotely at the September 2020 elections.
2 subjects

2 subjects of the Russian Federation – Kursk and Yaroslavl regions-took part in remote voting.
90% turnout

The overall turnout in the voting
2 months

Development time of the project